The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until 1806 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Cha

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  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until 1806 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg.The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until 1806 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg.The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until 1806 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. They are therefore direct successors of the Roman Caesars and the Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It is therefore a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It is therefore a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It is therefore a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It is in a concept from the Middle Ages a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It was therefore seen in a concept from the Middle Ages as a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Adolf Hitler allegedly disliked the Habsburg dynasty, largely as a result of its ruling over a historically multicultural empire. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Adolf Hitler allegedly disliked the Habsburg dynasty, largely as a result of its ruling over a historically multicultural empire. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the primary organisations of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Adolf Hitler allegedly disliked the Habsburg dynasty, largely as a result of its ruling over a historically multicultural empire. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the primary organisations of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. </ref> The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Adolf Hitler allegedly disliked the Habsburg dynasty, largely as a result of its ruling over a historically multicultural empire. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the primary organisations of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It was therefore seen in a concept from the Middle Ages as a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader some of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The striking Habsburg effect is described as the late Habsburg legacy of the obviously good administration of the empire, a scientifically and statistically proven connection in Eastern Europe to the lower tendency to corruption or bribery and to greater trust in administration, police and jurisdiction among today's residents of the former Habsburg territory compared to today's residents on the other side of the border. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The many Habsburg emperors were seen in a concept from the Middle Ages as successors to the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the primary organisations of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. He acted against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family was involved in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The rule of the Habsburg family ended in 1918. But effects of their rule, like the habsburg effect in terms of administration, were still perceived later. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The many Habsburg emperors were seen in a concept from the Middle Ages as successors to the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the main organizers of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. He acted against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family was involved in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The rule of the Habsburg family ended in 1918. But effects of their rule, like the habsburg effect in terms of administration, were still perceived later. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The many Habsburg emperors were seen in a concept from the Middle Ages as successors to the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the main organizers of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. He acted against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family was involved in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the main organizers of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. He acted against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family was involved in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The many Habsburg emperors were seen in this regard in a concept from the Middle Ages as successors to the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the main organizers of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. He acted against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family was involved in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The rule of the Habsburg family ended in 1918. But effects of their rule, like the habsburg effect in terms of administration, were still perceived later. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ Today, when discussing the problems of the European Union, the Habsburg Monarchy with its many peoples, languages ​​and religions is often used as an example. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. Otto von Habsburg was one of the main organizers of the monarchical opposition to Nazi Germany throughout its occupation of Austria. He acted against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family was involved in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The rule of the Habsburg family ended in 1918. But effects of their rule, like the habsburg effect in terms of administration, were still perceived later. James Joyce, who had come into contact with the multinational state of Austria-Hungary in the cosmopolitan port city of Trieste, retrospectively assessed the lost Habsburg Empire with: „They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.“ Today, when discussing the problems of the European Union, the Habsburg Monarchy with its many peoples, languages ​​and religions is often used as an example. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine. The current head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to later as today as the House of Habsburg, the historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Because the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists and Socialists as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of "live and let live" in relation to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages and bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xavier Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xavier Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the [Allies of World War II|Allies]], were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two oldest and most powerful European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties, and one of the most powerful as well playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Anarchists, Communists, Socialists and Liberals as well as the USSR were strictly anti-Habsburg because they feared opposition in their oppressed countries during the Cold War. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs, with a brief interruption with Charles VII from the House of Wittelsbach, from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the USA. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • Hapburgs family had a family was a extinct line in 1800 and they dipersed thru out the world never to be the hapburgs again due to being in bed and became normal everyday people again and are apart of your communities thru out Austria there is one boy there thru sax meiningen seems like he's drawn alot of attention with that being said .....welcome home hapburgs boy just saying ..... (en)
  • Hay when is someone going to fix up this website and clean a bit to many fakes edits in here that to easy to good themselves to believe they are more than what we are ......I'm a big arsey person {short description|Austrian dynastic family}}("Habsburg" redirects here. For the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, see House of Habsburg-Lorraine. For other uses, see Habsburg (disambiguation).) The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried, including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and his wife from the House of Habsburg, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the , who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. After the First World War, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, its traditional rival house, it was one of the two oldest European royal dynasties and one of the most powerful as well, playing a key role in European politics for nearly five centuries. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Spanish and Austrian branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried, including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and his wife from the House of Habsburg, Empress Maria Leopoldina. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland by Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh-generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg was elected King of the Romans. Taking advantage of the extinction of the Babenbergs and of his victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia at the battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, he subsequently moved the family's power base to Vienna, where the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Spain, Portugal and Galicia, with their respective colonies; rulers of several principalities in the Low Countries and Italy; and in the 19th century, emperors of Austria and of Austria-Hungary as well as one Emperor of Mexico. The family split several times into parallel branches, most consequentially in the mid-16th century between its Spanish and Imperial/Austrian branches following the abdication of Charles V. Although they ruled distinct territories, the different branches nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house of Habsburg still exists and owns the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. As of early 2021, the head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland by Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh-generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg was elected King of the Romans. Taking advantage of the extinction of the Babenbergs and of his victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia at the battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, he subsequently moved the family's power base to Vienna, where the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Spain, Portugal and Galicia, with their respective colonies; rulers of several principalities in the Low Countries and Italy; and in the 19th century, emperors of Austria and of Austria-Hungary as well as one Emperor of Mexico. The family split several times into parallel branches, most consequentially in the mid-16th century between its Spanish and Imperial/Austrian branches following the abdication of Charles V. Although they ruled distinct territories, the different branches nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house of Habsburg still exists and owns the Austrian branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. As of early 2021, the head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg is full of incest shmucks (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland by Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh-generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg was elected King of the Romans. Taking advantage of the extinction of the Babenbergs and of his victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia at the battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, he subsequently moved the family's power base to Vienna, where the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Spain, Portugal and Galicia, with their respective colonies; rulers of several principalities in the Low Countries and Italy; and in the 19th century, emperors of Austria and of Austria-Hungary as well as one Emperor of Mexico. The family split several times into parallel branches, most consequentially in the mid-16th century between its Spanish and Imperial/Austrian branches following the abdication of Charles V. Although they ruled distinct territories, the different branches nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house of Habsburg still exists and owns the Austrian branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. As of early 2021, the head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
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  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until 1806 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Cha (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was spli (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. They are therefore direct successors of the Roman Caesars and the Carolingian emperors. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It is therefore a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Carolingian emperors. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It is therefore a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It is in a concept from the Middle Ages a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. It was therefore seen in a concept from the Middle Ages as a direct successor of the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The many Habsburg emperors were seen in a concept from the Middle Ages as successors to the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The many Habsburg emperors were seen in this regard in a concept from the Middle Ages as successors to the Roman Caesars and the Roman and Carolingian emperors. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), is one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs, with a brief interruption with Charles VII from the House of Wittelsbach, from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • Hapburgs family had a family was a extinct line in 1800 and they dipersed thru out the world never to be the hapburgs again due to being in bed and became normal everyday people again and are apart of your communities thru out Austria there is one boy there thru sax meiningen seems like he's drawn alot of attention with that being said .....welcome home hapburgs boy just saying ..... (en)
  • Hay when is someone going to fix up this website and clean a bit to many fakes edits in here that to easy to good themselves to believe they are more than what we are ......I'm a big arsey person {short description|Austrian dynastic family}}("Habsburg" redirects here. For the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, see House of Habsburg-Lorraine. For other uses, see Habsburg (disambiguation).) (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The current house orders are the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The House of Habsburg still exists today and its members use the name Habsburg, such as the current head of the family Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house of Habsburg still exists and owns the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. As of early 2021, the head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house of Habsburg still exists and owns the Austrian branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. As of early 2021, the head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
  • The House of Habsburg is full of incest shmucks (; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg, Spanish: Casa de Habsburgo, Hungarian: Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich, Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house of Habsburg still exists and owns the Austrian branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. As of early 2021, the head of the family is Karl von Habsburg. (en)
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  • House of Habsburg (en)
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