In linguistics, hortative modalities ( (); abbreviated HORT) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action. Different hortatives can be used to express greater or lesser intensity, or the speaker's attitude, for or against it. Hortative modalities signal the speaker's encouragement or discouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the action of an utterance. They can therefore be used only in the first-person plural (cohortative) and second-person singular and plural (adhortative, exhortative, dehortative, and inhortative).

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  • In linguistics, hortative modalities ( (); abbreviated HORT) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action. Different hortatives can be used to express greater or lesser intensity, or the speaker's attitude, for or against it. Hortative modalities signal the speaker's encouragement or discouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the action of an utterance. They can therefore be used only in the first-person plural (cohortative) and second-person singular and plural (adhortative, exhortative, dehortative, and inhortative). (en)
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  • In linguistics, hortative modalities ( (); abbreviated HORT) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action. Different hortatives can be used to express greater or lesser intensity, or the speaker's attitude, for or against it. Hortative modalities signal the speaker's encouragement or discouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the action of an utterance. They can therefore be used only in the first-person plural (cohortative) and second-person singular and plural (adhortative, exhortative, dehortative, and inhortative). (en)
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  • Hortative (en)
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