In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in graphs modelling of real systems. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research (since 2000) inspired largely by the empirical study of real-world networks such as computer networks, biological networks, technological networks, brain networks, climate networks and social networks.

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  • In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in graphs modelling of real systems. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research (since 2000) inspired largely by the empirical study of real-world networks such as computer networks, biological networks, technological networks, brain networks, climate networks and social networks. (en)
  • In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in networks representing real systems. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research (since 2000) inspired largely by empirical findings of real-world networks such as computer networks, biological networks, technological networks, brain networks, climate networks and social networks. (en)
  • In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in networks representing real systems. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research (since 2000) inspired largely by empirical findings of real-world networks such as computer networks, biological networks, technological networks, brain networks, climate networks and social networks. </ref>==Definition==Most social, biological, and technological networks display substantial non-trivial topological features, with patterns of connection between their elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random. Such features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure, and hierarchical structure. In the case of directed networks these features also include reciprocity, triad significance profile and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features. The most complex structures can be realized by networks with a medium number of interactions. This corresponds to the fact that the maximum information content (entropy) is obtained for medium probabilities. Two well-known and much studied classes of complex networks are scale-free networks and small-world networks, whose discovery and definition are canonical case-studies in the field. Both are characterized by specific structural features—power-law degree distributions for the former and short path lengths and high clustering for the latter. However, as the study of complex networks has continued to grow in importance and popularity, many other aspects of network structures have attracted attention as well. Recently, the study of complex networks has been expanded to networks of networks. If those networks are interdependent, they become significantly more vulnerable than single networks to random failures and targeted attacks and exhibit cascading failures and first-order percolation transitions. Furthermore, the collective behavior of a network in the presence of nodes failure and recovery has been studied. It has been found that such a network can have spontaneous failures and spontaneous recoveries. The field continues to develop at a brisk pace, and has brought together researchers from many areas including mathematics, physics, electric power systems, biology, climate, computer science, sociology, epidemiology, and others. Ideas and tools from network science and engineering have been applied to the analysis of metabolic and genetic regulatory networks; the study of ecosystem stability and robustness; clinical science; the modeling and design of scalable communication networks such as the generation and visualization of complex wireless networks; the development of vaccination strategies for the control of disease; Network science is the topic of many conferences in a variety of different fields, and has been the subject of numerous books both for the lay person and for the expert. (en)
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  • In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in graphs modelling of real systems. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research (since 2000) inspired largely by the empirical study of real-world networks such as computer networks, biological networks, technological networks, brain networks, climate networks and social networks. (en)
  • In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in networks representing real systems. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research (since 2000) inspired largely by empirical findings of real-world networks such as computer networks, biological networks, technological networks, brain networks, climate networks and social networks. (en)
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  • Complex network (en)
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